© 2010 PhysOrg.com While territorial behavior is common in other reptiles, such as lizards, snakes normally rely on mobile food sources and rely on hunting. Once a meal is found, they move on. However, the Kukrisnakes of Orchid Island have found themselves a defendable source of food and they are standing their ground, especially the females.Orchid Island is home to many turtle nesting grounds and those nests are where the snakes have set up camp so to speak. These nests contain upwards of 100 eggs which take two months to hatch. This provides the snake with a food source that can last weeks without going bad.Researchers discovered it is usually the male snakes which find the nests first; however, if a female snake should happen upon the same nest, it is usually the female who wins out.Kukrisnakes have very large blade-like teeth and are very aggressive. They also fend off attackers by raising their tail in order to mimic another head. Unfortunately for the male snake, the tail area also contains their manhood. Male Kukrisnakes, having what is called a hemipenis, or twin penis, also evert these to further confuse predators. Unfortunately, when fighting a female with large teeth, it appears these male snakes would rather give up the nests than risk injury and loss of reproductive function, even though by size they are much larger than their female counterparts.Huang found however, if another female happened upon a nest already occupied by another female snake, they seem to stick together and share the contents of the nest. This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Fragmented forests result in more snakes, fewer birds The Taiwanese Kukrisnake. Image: robferblue/flickr Explore further (PhysOrg.com) — In a first documented case of territorial behavior by a species of snake, a team led by Wen-San Huang of Taiwan’s National Museum of Natural Science and Cornell University discuss the Kukrisnakes from Taiwan’s Orchid Island in a report published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Citation: Territorial defense by the Taiwanese Kukrisnake (2011, April 20) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-04-territorial-defense-taiwanese-kukrisnake.html The Taiwanese kukrisnake. More information: Territorial behavior in Taiwanese kukrisnakes (Oligodon formosanus), PNAS, Published online before print April 18, 2011, doi:10.1073/pnas.1101804108
This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. (PhysOrg.com) — Researchers at Context Information Security have issued a warning about the WebGL standard. The warning states that this standard has the potential to undermine the security concepts that are practiced by current operating system versions and provide a new set of opportunities for attacks on a variety of system. More information: Report: www.contextis.com/resources/blog/webgl/ The standard, which is designed to enabled the rendering of 3D animations, executes the shader code directly on the system’s graphics card. While this may make graphics rendering simpler, it does however make a space for the exploitation. If the graphics card has any vulnerability in it the system could be breached. This level of vulnerability is something that the Khronos Group, who are the creators of the WebGL standard, have acknowledged the possibility of in the WebGL specifications. How serious are the potential vulnerabilities? Well, the researchers at Context Information Security say that they have been able to create the blue screen of death by using an exploitation that targets the overloading of a graphics card. While some of the current operating systems do have a fail-safe that rests an overloaded graphics card after a few seconds, the blue screen of death can be reached after a certain number of resets. Explore further The flaw could also, according to the researchers, be used to not just create the blue screen of death, but to inject malicious code onto the system. There is no word yet as to whether or not the standard will be changed, or when any changes to the standard would be implemented. Since the problem is already known and published in the standard it may not change at all. Superior 3D Graphics for the Web a Step Closer Citation: Security flaws found in the WebGL standard (2011, May 13) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-05-flaws-webgl-standard.html © 2010 PhysOrg.com
Halicephalobus mesphisto was named after Mesphistopheles which is the literary nickname for the Devil. It was located in a mine some 1.3 km (0.8 miles) below the surface where the temperatures reach 37C (98.6F). This was believed to be a higher temperature than most nematodes could tolerate. H. mephisto measures 0.5mm and eats films of bacteria. It was found in the Beatrix gold mine some 240 kilometers southwest of Johannesburg.The Driefontein mines revealed two more nematode species. Plectus aquatilis and another unkown species from the Monhysterid order were located at 0.9 km (0.55 miles) below the surface at a temperature of 24C (75.2F).The most amazing discovery came from the Tau Tona mine where researchers discovered DNA from another unknown monhysterid. This DNA was recovered from some 3.6 km (2.24 miles) below the surface where temperatures reach 48C (118.4F).In order to rule out contamination and the possibility these nematodes were from closer to the surface, Borgonie tested the water’s chemical composition that the nematode was collected in and found levels of oxygen, sulphur, and other chemicals that were expected to have come from the source location. He used carbon dating and determined that the water had been isolated from the earth’s surface for 3,000 to 12,000 years. (PhysOrg.com) — In a study published this week in Nature, researchers Gaetan Borgonie from Ghent University in Belgium and Tullis Onstott from Princeton University announced the discovery of new nematode species living kilometers below the earth in several South African mines. Nematodes had been previously found much closer to the surface, but this discovery of deep-dwelling nematodes, or roundworms, are the first multicellular organisms to ever be found at these depths. Halicephalobus mephisto worm. Image credit: Gaetan Borgonie/University of Ghent This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: Worms from hell identified far below the Earth’s surface (2011, June 2) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-06-worms-hell-earth-surface.html More information: Nematoda from the terrestrial deep subsurface of South Africa, Nature 474, 79–82 (02 June 2011) doi:10.1038/nature09974AbstractSince its discovery over two decades ago, the deep subsurface biosphere has been considered to be the realm of single-cell organisms, extending over three kilometres into the Earth’s crust and comprising a significant fraction of the global biosphere. The constraints of temperature, energy, dioxygen and space seemed to preclude the possibility of more-complex, multicellular organisms from surviving at these depths. Here we report species of the phylum Nematoda that have been detected in or recovered from 0.9–3.6-kilometre-deep fracture water in the deep mines of South Africa but have not been detected in the mining water. These subsurface nematodes, including a new species, Halicephalobus mephisto, tolerate high temperature, reproduce asexually and preferentially feed upon subsurface bacteria. Carbon-14 data indicate that the fracture water in which the nematodes reside is 3,000–12,000-year-old palaeometeoric water. Our data suggest that nematodes should be found in other deep hypoxic settings where temperature permits, and that they may control the microbial population density by grazing on fracture surface biofilm patches. Our results expand the known metazoan biosphere and demonstrate that deep ecosystems are more complex than previously accepted. The discovery of multicellular life in the deep subsurface of the Earth also has important implications for the search for subsurface life on other planets in our Solar System. © 2010 PhysOrg.com Possible new hope for crops battling parasitic infection Explore further
The American White Moth, known in the U.S. as the Fall Webworm, (though some call them “forest locusts”) creates, during its larval stage, the familiar webbed nests seen on hardwood tree limbs all across the country. It is one of the few insects that have migrated from North America to other parts of the world. The Fall Webworm doesn’t generally harm the trees where it lives, though it does reduce the amount of leaves on them, which isn’t considered all that much of a problem until it moves to orchards where large swarms of them can actually totally denude a tree, leaving it with little means to collect sunlight for converting to energy for growing fruit.The American White Moth was first seen in China in Liaoning province back in 1979 and has been considered a pest ever since. This year alone, Chinese experts estimate that the moths have infested approximately 20,000 hectares of farmland and forest in and around the city where the insects were released.Professor Yang Zhongqi, a Chinese entomologist is credited with discovering that wasps, known as “chouionia cunea Yang,” could be used as a natural moth control vehicle when he found that a type of bee use their stingers to bore into the moth pupae and kill the larva inside in order to eat them. Zhongqi is also credited with giving the moth’s their Chinese name.Chinese entomologists breed the wasps on a huge scale employing silkworm cocoons, which they hang on trees in the areas where the moths are known to reproduce. Locals have given them the nickname “forest defenders” because of their ability to effectively control populations of the moths.In prior years, the wasps have been used to fight moth infestations in other provinces as well, and even in Beijing, and while releasing wasps does seem to be an effective and eco-friendly way to control the pests, experts warn that releasing wasps as a sole means of eradicating the American White Moth, is likely to be insufficient. (PhysOrg.com) — Chinese forestry officials have released some 600 million parasitic insects into the north China city of Baoding to combat the spread of the American White Moth that has been (in their caterpillar stage) eating the leaves off of forest and domestic orchard trees, as well as some farm crops. This is the fifth year in a row that Chinese officials have released wasps hoping to reduce the damage caused by the moths. Explore further © 2010 PhysOrg.com More information: Corrected version: 8/11/2011 6pm.via Xinhua Can wasps help save Britain’s conker trees? This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Citation: China releases 600 million wasps to combat moths (2011, August 10) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2011-08-china-million-bees-combat-moths.html
According to research conducted by scientists at University of California-Riverside’s “Life Events” lab, one good way to deal anxiety-ridden waiting is to have an “awe experience.” Psychologist Katharine Sweeny, Ph.D. describes this as a moment that helps you lose yourself in the grandeur of life. Read the whole story: Inverse The anxiety of waiting can be brutal. Whether you’re waiting on GRE scores, job application news, health test results, or any other weighty piece of life information, some strategies for coping are more effective than others. One powerful way to deal with that sense of anxious foreboding, scientists argued in a recent paper in the Journal of Positive Psychology, is to have your mind blown.
Kolkata: Veteran Bengali film actor Lolita Chatterjee (Runu) passed away at a city nursing home on Wednesday. She was 81. Condoling her death, Chief Minister Mamata Banerjee tweeted: “Saddened at the passing away of veteran film actress Lolita Chatterjee. My condolences to her family, friends and admirers.”Chatterjee, popularly known by her nickname Runu, acted opposite Uttam Kumar in Bibhas in 1964, in her inaugural debut. She had acted in Jay Jayanti against Uttam Kumar as well. In the 1970s, she moved to Mumbai and had acted with Rajesh Khanna, Mumtaz and Sharmila Tagore in Aap Ki Kasam, Victoria no. 203 and Talaash. She came back to Kolkata and joined jatra.In 2013, she acted in Gautam Ghosh’s Shunyo Awnko and played the lead role in Aditya Vikram Sengupta’s Jonaki.
The Delhi Medical Council (DMC) has started inquiry into a Guwahati resident’s complaint of “medical negligence” on the part of two city-based private hospitals, which led to his wife’s death. “We have started an enquiry into the matter. We will seek documents related to the case from the respective hospitals and examine them. The allegations are serious and need to be looked into,” said Girish Tyagi, Registrar at DMC. The complainant, Ankuran Dutta, has also written to Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal, who in turn has forwarded his complaint to the Health Department. Also Read – Man arrested for making hoax call at IGI airport”We have received the complaint from the Chief Minister’s Office. We will be writing to the two hospitals and get all the documents for further action in the matter,” A K Saini, a senior official at the Directorate of Health Services, said. Dutta’s wife Anamika, an assistant professor at Gauhati University, had undergone a minimal access surgery (gall bladder) on July 17 at Navjeevan Hospital in Pitampura in north-west Delhi. But as her condition deteriorated, she was shifted to Jaipur Golden Hospital in Rohini, where on July 19 she suffered several heart attacks within an hour and died, Dutta claimed. Dutta has also filed a police complaint. When contacted, a senior doctor at Jaipur Golden Hospital said, “We have spoken to the doctor and he is denying any medical negligence. There is an appropriate body which can comment upon it.” Despite several attempts, Navjeevan Hospital authorities could not be contacted.
Kolkata: The Narcotics Control Bureau (NCB), Eastern Zone has seized more than three thousand tablets of six different psychotropic substances and nabbed three persons for allegedly exporting the drugs illegally to the United States (USA) and Canada.The Director of NCB, Eastern Zone, Dilip Srivastav, informed that the exported drugs are used as sedatives in the US and Canada. Those medicines are legal in India only with a valid prescription of a registered medical practitioner. But these tablets are not meant to be sold in the US and Canada as per their regulations. Also Read – Rain batters Kolkata, cripples normal lifeSources said a few days ago, the Delhi unit of NCB informed the Eastern Zone unit about one person who was nabbed in Delhi for allegedly exporting medicines illegally. During interrogation, the accused informed that the medicines used to come from Kolkata. After investigation, it was found that the courier was booked from Kolkata. The Eastern Zonal unit immediately was informed.Upon receiving the informatio, a team was formed and investigation commenced. On September 24, the NCB team raided a flat at Maheshtala, 24-Parganas. During the raid, a person identified as Ganesh Pun was arrested and 3,161 tablets of six different psychotropic substances seized worth Rs 15 lakh. The substances identified are — Nitrazepam-10 mg, Tremadol-400 mg, Clonazepam-1mg, Lorazepam-2mg, Alprazolam-1mg, zolfresh/Zolpidem-10 mg and stilnoct/zolpidem- 12.5 mg. Also Read – Speeding Jaguar crashes into Mercedes car in Kolkata, 2 pedestrians killedGanesh stated that he was in charge of packing and exporting the tabletsthrough courier.He also told the sleuths about two more persons who head this racket in Kolkata. On the night of September 25 and 26, a group of investigators raided a medicine shop at Shyamnagar in Jagaddal area. The owner of the shop identified as Sunil Agarwal was arrested. During a search operation, several kinds of psychotropic tablets were seized.While interrogating Agarwal, another name came to light. On the same night, a call center identified as Dream Advent Services at Poddarnagar in South City mall area was raided. Several incriminating documents were found. Though some employees were there at that time, the owner was not present. Some of the NCB team members immediately rushed to Purbanchal in Ruby hospital area and arrested the owner identified as Clement Philips.”Philips used to run his illicit trade from behind the cover of his call center. During daytime, his call center operated usually. Post 9 pm, the center used to receive orders from the US and Canada. After the orders were placed, the details were shared with Agarwal for procuring the tablets. After the procuring process was over, the tablets were sent to Pun for packaging and exporting through courier,” said Srivastav.
Jakarta – The Ministry of Tourism of Republic of Indonesia (MoTRI) is actively promoting Indonesia in the Indian tourism market through a sales mission (tourism roadshow) in India.The roadshow held in Mumbai on August 14 and New Delhi on August 17. Besides, it will be organised on Hyderabad on August 27. The event aims at increasing more transaction of tour packages between the Indonesian and Indian tourism Industry through B2B (table top) meetings. Also Read – Add new books to your shelfFurthermore, Badung – a region with the maximum tourism activities in Bali, will also hold a sales mission in conjunction with the Ministry of Tourism of Indonesia in the cities of Chandigarh on August 20, Jaipur on August 22, Lucknow on August 23 and Kolkata on August 24. “These activities are meant to convey the importance we place on the Indian market,” said Sigit Witjaksono, Director of Promotion for South and Central Asia, the Middle East and Africa, Ministry of the Tourism Republic of Indonesia. Also Read – Over 2 hours screen time daily will make your kids impulsiveThe Indian market bound for Indonesia has been skyrocketing in the last couple of years. In term of visitors, the number of Indian visits is increasing YOY. From January to July 2018 there were more than 340,000 Indian visitors to Indonesia as compared to the same period in 2017. This huge growth, however, leaves more to be desired. “We are not satisfied by merely good organic growth, we need to challenge ourselves and raise the bar,” remarked Nia Niscaya the Deputy Minister of Tourism Marketing, Ministry of Tourism of the Republic of Indonesia. “For 2018, the Minister has set 700,000 visits as the target for the Indian market and that’s a huge 40% target increase from 2017’s,” added Niscaya. To answer this challenge, the Ministry is taking additional steps in order to ensure the target can be attained by the end of 2018. An effective way is to conduct joint promotion activities with big names in the tourism industry. For India, the MoTRI will start this joint promotion with big names in the Indian tourism business and one of them is MakeMyTrip.
“Let me tell you about the very rich. They are different from you and me.” — The Rich Boy, F. Scott Fitzgerald. And nowhere was the disparity between the wealthy and the wannabes more vividly on display than during the appropriately-named Gilded Age of the late 19th century.Get a gander of these over-the-top (and then some) extravagances enjoyed by the top one percenters.Flights of FancyMink was nice, silk sublime, but what really sent women into a frenzy: the pure white plumage of the snow egret, thought to be one of the most exquisite species of birds by none other than John James Audubon, noted 19th-century ornithologist and artist.Furs by fashion house Felix Jungmann for the Exposition Universelle world’s fair held in Paris, 1900.The pristine feathers were plucked during the height of the breeding season to be used by milliners to adorn fanciful hats for their toney clients.Things got so out of hand that the snow egret was near extinction by the latter part of the century.And it wasn’t just egrets that were in high demand: It was believed that no less than fifty North American species were being slaughtered for their feathers.Gilded Age fashionEnter two feisty Boston socialites, Harriet Hemenway and her cousin, Minna Hall, who read about the birds’ plight and made it their mission to save their feathered friends.The two rebel-rousers rounded up other women from Boston society for a series of tea parties and convinced them to stop wearing feathered hats.Harriet Lawrence HemenwayThe successful boycott led to the passage of the Weeks-McLean Law, also known as the Migratory Bird Act, in 1913, outlawing market hunting and the interstate transport of birds.24-Carat CommodeBaltimore’s Garrett clan (which made its fortune in the railroad industry) didn’t do anything by half. After industrialist T. Harrison Garrett moved his family into the massive Evergreen estate in northern Baltimore, Maryland in 1878, they decided to add some upgrades, expanding the house to 48 rooms — all the better for displaying their collections of Tiffany glass.One notable addition was a theater—ticket window decorated by Leon Bakst, famed Russian set and costume designer for the Ballets Russes. Bakst also designed stage sets and costumes for Alice Garrett to wear during her singing-and-dancing performances for guests.But even that was outdone by the bathroom, the centerpiece of which was a toilet seat of pure gold — truly a throne fit for a king. (Interesting tidbit: Instead of reaching for a toilet paper dispenser after doing one’s business, he or she merely pressed a call button, presumably to summon some poor servant, who lucked into one of the lousiest jobs in the world.)Doggy Dinner PartiesDuring the 1900s, “anything you can do, I can do better” was the prevailing attitude, particularly when it came to entertaining.Marion Graves Anthon “Mamie” Fish, the wife of railroad baron and socialite Stuyvesant Fish, was well known for her extravagant parties. When she threw a Dog’s Dinner birthday party for friend Elizabeth Drexel Lehr’s pomeranian, Mighty Atom, Mrs. Fish decked out her own beloved dog with a $15,000 diamond collar for the occasion.Well-heeled guests arrived with their well-heeled pooches, bringing gifts for Mighty Atom totalling $25,000.Other hosts found their own unique way to show off their wealth. A soiree at Delmonico’s in New York City featured an enormous indoor garden with a lake in the middle, complete with swans.Delmonico’s in 1906.Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt brought Broadway to her estate, the Breakers, in Newport, Rhode Island, inviting the entire cast of the musical The Wild Rose to perform (the show’s sets came too).Stuyvesant FishAnd billionaire James Hazen Hyde decorated his home to look like the court of Louis XIV for a masquerade ball, while the Metropolitan Opera House’s 40-piece orchestra supplied the music.Conspicuous ConsumptionMoney wasn’t the only thing the wealthy had an appetite for during the Gilded Age. An expansive waistline was a sign of living the good life.And when it came to packing down food, beefy businessman “Diamond” Jim Brady was in a class by himself. William Grimes, author of Appetite City, refers to Brady as the “Paul Bunyan of the dinner table.”James “Diamond Jim” BradyBrady’s biographer, H. Paul Jeffers, described a typical dinner thusly: “two or three dozen oysters, six crabs, and a few servings of green turtle soup. The main course was two whole ducks, six or seven lobsters, a sirloin steak, two servings of terrapin and a variety of vegetables.”Shellfish feast with lobster, tiger prawns, clams, mussels, vegetables and a couple beers.For dessert, “pastries…and perhaps a five-pound box of candy.” Brady washed it all down with orange juice.It’s said that Brady began his meals sitting four inches from the edge of the table, and kept eating until his stomach made contact. (In case you’re wondering, Brady died of a heart attack at age 61. Doctors claimed his stomach was six times that of the average person.)Real-Estate RivalriesNowhere was the “show ‘em what you’ve got” mentality on display more than Newport, Rhode Island. America’s newly rich set out to mimic the lifestyle of European aristocracy.Exterior view of historic Rosecliff Mansion in Newport, Rhode Island, USA.What resulted was a jaw-dropping game of one-upmanship among neighbors and, in some cases, family members — most notably, two Vanderbilt brothers: William and Cornelius.Exterior view of the historic Marble House in Newport Rhode Island. This former Vanderbilt Mansion is now a well known travel attraction.William Vanderbilt’s Marble House, a Versailles-inspired showplace, had no equal in opulence when it was completed in 1892, boasting walls coated in 22-carat gold leaf, a front portico designed after the one at the White House, and an 18th century Venetian ceiling painting featuring gods and goddesses from classic mythology adorning the ceiling, and $7 million worth of marble.Rosecliff is one of the Gilded Age mansions built by architect Stanford White between 1898-1902.“Oh, it is so on…” (or words to that effect), said William Vanderbilt’s younger brother, Cornelius, who responded in kind by constructing his own showplace — The Breakers, a 70-room Italian Renaissance-style palazzo inspired by the 16th century palaces of Genoa and Turpin — to one-up his brother.Closet Deep-DivesWhen you have closets full of the latest fashions, you can’t be expected to spend the day in the same outfit. So the rich changed their clothes (at least) several times a day.Portrait of a woman in a large hat, 1900-1910.The ladies, in particular, had plenty to pick from: morning street dresses, dressing for receiving callers, carriage dresses, visiting dresses, full dinner dresses, ball dresses, hostess dresses, dresses to wear to church, to the theater, to concerts, outfits for riding, croquet, archery, skating, traveling…well, you get the idea.Berry Wall pictured (1888) in the New York American at the time of the “Battle of the Dudes.”However, the premiere quick-change artist may have been a man: It’s said that Evander Berry Wall once swapped duds no less than 40 times between breakfast and dinner. Clothes weren’t the only things to be regularly cast aside during the day.All that socializing tended to tire a person out, so the wealthy were big believe in afternoon naps, so bedding was changed (at least) two or three times a day.Dining on HorsebackTally-ho! Anyone can throw a sit-down dinner party. The truly inspired served meals on horseback.In 1903, C.K.G. Billings, a millionaire and horse-racing aficionado known as “the American Horse King,” spent $350,000 turning a Manhattan ballroom into a show ring of sorts.Lou Dillon winning the Webster Cup, 1903.Billings, an equestrian, had put the finishing touches to a swanky private stable near Harlem River Drive and wanted to celebrate.Guests arrived at Sherry’s a 5th Avenue restaurant decked out in evening duds, only to get the shock of their lives.Tables had been cleared from the room, replaced with fake turf and scenery resembling an English countryside.Billings’ horse partyParty-goers were instructed to hop onto horses (which were hoisted up in a freight elevator). Waiters placed a series of elaborate fare, such as caviar, turtle soup, rack of lamb, guinea hens, flambéed peaches, and Krug champagne (or ginger ale for those who didn’t want to get sauced and tumble from their mount) on table trays attached to each horse’s saddle.As a momento of this most unusual evening, guests (who were, let’s face it, good sports) were given sterling-silver horseshoes inscribed with the menu.Pimped-Out Private Railroad CarsApparently, you can take it with you. Engineer, industrialist, and the founder of the Pullman Company, George Pullman made traveling by train a luxurious experience in the 1800s, with the introduction of sleeping cars, dining cars, and parlor cars.A Pullman car, interior view.To cater to uber-wealthy clientele, the company took things to another level with private rail cars, which featured four-star, hotel-like accommodation, including chef and personal assistants.The cars, which attached to commercial passenger trains, could sleep up to twelve, and could be customized to cater to the owners’ whims. There were drawing rooms adorned with custom-wood paneling, dining rooms with elaborate domed ceilings, and staterooms with queen-sized beds that connected to marble baths.Read another story from us: Women Used to Take Their Husbands to Court for Being ImpotentOne private Pullman featured a fireplace in the lounge. While some patrons owned their own private cars, others chose to rent executive charter cars instead, including then-President William McKinley and Robert Todd Lincoln, Abe’s eldest son, who became President of the Pullman Palace Car Company from 1887 to 1911.
The Battle of Hastings in 1066 marked the start of William the Conqueror’s rule over England when he defeated the Anglo-Saxon King Harold II on the battlefield. Less than 20 years later, his throne was threatened by Denmark. In order to know what sort of financial and military resources William had at his disposal in case of war, he ordered a massive survey of his kingdom.This assessment, the size of which was unrivaled until first general population survey of 1801, came to be known as the Domesday Book.Great Domesday in its ‘Tudor’ binding, a wood-engraving of the 1860s.In 1085, around Christmas, William commissioned the survey of all of the boroughs and manors in his realm in order to learn exactly who owned what, what it was worth, and what taxes, if any, were owed to the King, as well as any rents or military service.As a result, the survey records what manors belonged to what estates, as well as the identities of the owners and the king’s principal barons and clergymen who held crown land, and who may have owed military service as knights.Gloucester Cathedral. Tomb and Effigy of William the Conqueror’s eldest son. Photo by Roy Hughes CC BY-SA 2.0In essence, the survey, which only took a year to complete, was designed to record, trace and recover all royal rights and monies. And it was not just for the benefit of the king; the chief barons had a vested interest to cooperate in the survey as it put into permanent record all of the tenurlal gains they had made since the start of William’s reign in 1066.As documented in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle (a collection of annals written in Old English which chronicle the history of Anglo-Saxon England):“Then, at the midwinter , was the king in Gloucester with his council … After this had the king a large meeting, and very deep consultation with his council, about this land; how it was occupied, and by what sort of men.A page of Domesday Book for Warwickshire.Then sent he his men over all England into each shire; commissioning them to find out ‘How many hundreds of hides were in the shire, what land the king himself had, and what stock upon the land; or, what dues he ought to have by the year from the shire.’”The survey is not an examination of the entire population of England at the time, as the names of those who appear in the book were largely landowners. It has been used for centuries, however, as a legal and administrative document, and is invaluable to historians seeking to trace the history of a particular area or person. That being said, textual analyses by historians has also revealed that the book and its contents are not infallible.View of Bertam de Verdun’s “Domesday Book” entry.Consisting of 913 pages, and 2 million words, the book mentions more than 13,000 place names in England and some parts of Wales. It was written in Medieval Latin, which was the form of Latin used in Roman Catholic Western Europe at the time.As was common with Latin, there are copious abbreviations in the Domesday Book’s language, but it also includes some vernacular, or local terms, which do not have Latin equivalents.Domesday Book: an engraving published in 1900. Great Domesday (the larger volume) and Little Domesday (the smaller volume), in their 1869 bindings, lying on their older “Tudor” bindings.The “book” was originally a set of two volumes: Great Domesday and Little Domesday, which was ironically the longer version. It was re-bound in 1984 – almost 900 years after its completion – into five separate volumes, with the hope that this will improve its chances for preservation for another 1000 years.Great Domesday is believed to have been written primarily by a single scribe, although the handwriting of a second person has been identified in some notes and entries. Because the entire book, like all publications before the printing press, was hand done, errors and inconsistencies were inevitable; it is over these errors that historians argue and exercise some caution against taking everything in the book at face value.Domesday BookLittle Domesday is smaller in physical size than its companion volume, hence its name, but it is actually longer and more detailed, specifically with regard to the description of livestock belonging to a manor. As many as seven scribes worked on Little Domesday, and it, too, consists of errors, likely caused by the speed at which it was written.Not covered in the book, however, are several important cities, including London, Winchester and Bristol. Only certain parts of the Welsh border are covered, and not every town or village that existed in 1085 is included in the Domesday Book.Domesday chest, the German-style iron-bound chest of c.1500 in which Domesday Book was kept in the 17th and 18th centuries.For example, the book has an entry for Shepshed, near Loughborough, but the settlements of Long Whatton, Lockington and Hemington, which were included in its borders, are not mentioned.That being said, we know that many other villages and settlements date back to pre-Domesday years thanks in part to Anglo-Saxon charters, architectural evidence, or even the origins of the place name itself.In 1986, memorial plaques were installed in settlements mentioned in Domesday Book.The name by which we know the extensive survey today – Domesday – was not given to the book until almost 100 years after it was written. It came to be known as “Domesday” as a metaphor for the last day of judgement.As Richard Fitzneal, a bureaucrat in the service of King Henry II, wrote in his book Dialogus de Scaccario (or Dialogue Concerning the Exchequer) in 1179: “for as the sentence of that strict and terrible last account cannot be evaded by any skilful subterfuge, so when this book is appealed to … its sentence cannot be quashed or set aside with impunity. That is why we have called the book ‘the Book of Judgement’ … because its decisions, like those of the Last Judgement, are unalterable.”Read another story from us: The medieval tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings is to leave France and head for England for first time in 950 yearsBecause of its importance, not to mention the fragile nature of the book due to its age, the survey rarely goes on public display. It is currently on loan from the National Archives to the British Library as part of its Anglo-Saxon Kingdoms exhibition, which is on until February 2019. It is also available online via several sites, including that of the National Archives of the United Kingdom.
Guests:FS1 NBA Insider and FOX Sports Radio host Chris Broussard, NFL Analyst and former Pro Bowler Shawne Merriman, FS1 Instigator-in-Chief Rob Parker, PFF Analyst Sam Monson and FS1 Contributor Jason McIntyre The Browns are a lesser version of the ChiefsNo NFL team has more hype behind it entering the 2019 NFL season than the Cleveland Browns. For the first time in two decades, Cleveland is stacked, and just added arguably the best wideout in the NFL in Odell Beckham.Colin thinks the Browns high flying offense and ridiculous skill position talent resembles the similarly eye-popping Chiefs, but with less maturity, an inexperienced head coach, and way more potential volatility. There’s no question that the Browns will be entertaining, but it’s far from a sure thing they become legit contenders.Also:– LeBron is more entitled and distracted than ever– Zion Williamson will alter the NBA-Le’Veon Bell is still the most impactful free agent signing– Colin’s NFL Free Agency Grades
Tom Brady is almost as famous for his insane film session marathons as he is for his avocado ice cream and kale pajamas. Brett Favre, not so much.A video is making the rounds from a 2016 speech Favre gave in New Orleans where he told the story about how he didn’t know what a Nickel Defense was until several years into his tenure as starter and rifle-armed franchise savior.Favre said he would just nod along in film sessions with Mike Holmgren, and eventually went to backup Ty Detmer in secret to get scoop. After learning that Nickel just meant the D was taking out a linebacker and adding a DB, an unimpressed Favre responded, “That’s It? Who gives a s–t?”The story great. Favre’s delivery is better. Brady might throw up if he hears this blasphemy.
You can now add the White House to your list of Snapchat friends with the username “WhiteHouse.”An official announced the news in a blog post on Monday, saying that the White House has joined the platform just in time for President Obama’s State of the Union on Tuesday. Snapchat users will be able to go behind the scenes while the president and his staff prepare for the address and see it from a completely different perspective.This is part of the White House’s approach of “meeting people where they are,” which White House chief digital officer Jason Goldman wrote about in a Medium post. Since people are increasingly turning to social media for news, particularly the younger generation, that’s where the president has to go to reach them. Snapchat has over 100 million daily users, and more than 60% of smartphone-using Americans between 13 and 34 years old use the platform.Obama is also the first sitting president with a Twitter account and a Facebook page, and this will be the first time that the State of the Union will be available to stream on-demand. Cord-cutters can now watch Obama’s speech on Amazon Video, the White House’s official website (wh.gov/sotu), and its YouTube channel. Additionally, video excerpts will be released in real-time on Facebook and Twitter.Though Snapchat is known for its disappearing content, a White House official told Buzzfeed, “With Snapchat as with other social accounts, we’ll be fully compliant with PRA requirements, saving and preserving snaps for archives.” Listen Now 2 min read January 12, 2016 Hear from Polar Explorers, ultra marathoners, authors, artists and a range of other unique personalities to better understand the traits that make excellence possible. How Success Happens This story originally appeared on Fortune Magazine
It seems obvious once you think about it. But if STEAM (which adds art and design to the usual science, technology, engineering and math mix) is really going to take hold in the education system, classrooms themselves need an overhaul. The current setup, with desks facing a teacher and whiteboard, doesn’t allow the mind to roam or hands-on experimentation to take place.Those within the Arts and Humanities Department at Columbia University’s Teachers College are already thinking about this issue with a prototype learning environment known as ThingSpace, located deep in the basement of Macy Hall.It’s all part of a new approach for next-gen educators at the venerable Manhattan institution. A new crop of students have signed up for Advanced Certificate: Creative Technologies to learn how to preside over these new spaces, and they’ve all just arrived for the fall semester.PCMag went to the ThingSpace to meet Angela Allmond, a doctoral candidate at Teachers College specializing in art classroom design strategies, as she put up and painted the last shelves (Federated Blue HGSW1322, Sherwin Williams and a custom mix of what was left from last semester).”I’m actually writing my dissertation on studio spaces and how they meet the needs of students and teachers,” Allmond told PCMag. “My interest in this emerging discipline is also why I was hired to renovate this phased project as we re-imagine this whole venture.”The first thing that strikes you as you enter the ThingSpace is the lighting. It’s bright but there are no buzzing fluorescents overhead. “We switched out traditional strips for daylight sustainable energy bulbs,” confirmed Allmond.Though it previously served as a traditional sculpture studio, ThingSpace doesn’t look anything like a single purpose workshop. Remember those? Instead, everything is on display at ThingSpace. You can pick up Arduinos and fiddle with old electrical casings from vintage TVs. Maybe you paint or sculpt, but it’s all there, in a wide open airy space, carefully marked and on open shelves, from Makey Makeys to an assortment of steampunk and Maker Movement hand-craft tools.There’s a flexible work area for computer stations (loaded up with SketchUp for 3D modeling), a Poulan industrial size chain saw, DeWALT table saw, drill press, laser cutter and 3D printers; a CNC router is on its way. There are digital sewing machines for textile creation (cue the conductive thread possibilities) alongside very traditional tools (such as chisels) if students want them.”It’s all about creating a space that invites students to try new materials,” Allmond said. “Or that compels them to explore the range of possibility that exists across media choices, often tempting them to bridge the gap between ‘tried and true’ traditional materials and the many new and emerging possibilities brought about by the ever-changing and advancing digital technologies that permeate the 21st century.”As an educator in the classroom, I’ve often delighted in watching a student start an art class with no real idea of what to do, but eventually be drawn in by the ‘stuff’ of artmaking, from clay to pastels, found objects to 3D printing, and an vast array of compelling materials.”It’s not always easy to think out of the box when it comes to education spaces. As part of her PhD study, Allmond spent time at the Amesbury School in England as it embarked on a multi-million dollar building program.”I’d already started working on defining my research interests and shaping the proposal for my dissertation project, on how students flourish in well-designed creative spaces,” said Allmond. “And it was so useful to be at Amesbury. What I learned there is that if you don’t create these spaces with careful consideration of nuanced use patterns and organize it in a way that invites curiosity and exploration, you’ll get a fabulous building, but will still be cramming in all the same stuff into an area that’s not fit for purpose.”You have to grow into a space, especially a space you’re trying to change to become something else,” Allmond continued. “You have to understand the use of the space and how students are going to move around, generate desire to try new things and work on projects.”The ThingSpace is an imaginative way to inspire a whole new generation of educators and their students. Considering Teachers College is where Georgia O’Keeffe studied from 1914 to 1915, it’s great to know it is still forging individual minds and creative spirits within a future-ready learning environment. 4 min read Free Webinar | Sept. 9: The Entrepreneur’s Playbook for Going Global September 26, 2016 Register Now » Growing a business sometimes requires thinking outside the box. This story originally appeared on PCMag
MacBook users who prefer Google’s Chrome browser over Safari can now browse in dark mode.Chrome 73, the latest update to the leading web browser, brings a number of new features but the standout improvement is a native dark mode. Google first announced dark mode for Chrome last month, and soon after released several new themes that allow you to change the browser color from white to black, yellow, blue, rose pink and other hues. These themes changed the color of the menu bars and interface along with the default Google search home page. MacBook Air vs MacBook Pro: Which 13-inch MacBook Is Right For You?Apple’s entry-level MacBook Air and Pro look pretty similar, but our testing proved they differ in crucial ways.Your Recommended PlaylistVolume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Which Cheap Tablet Is Best? Amazon Fire 7 vs Walmart Onn02:45关闭选项Automated Captions – en-USAutomated Captions – en-USAutomated Captions – en-US facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.laptopmag.com/articles/google-chrome-dark-mode-macos?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0003:4603:46 MORE: How to Get Chrome’s New Themes (Including Dark Mode)Now, with its official release, dark mode for Chrome will automatically activate whenever macOS’ native dark mode setting is enabled on your computer. You also have the option to turn the mode on permanently if you want to use it for Chrome but keep your device’s operating system on the default “light” theme. A few widely reported benefits of using dark mode include reduced eye strain, longer battery life for your device and even improved sleep. Those are just a few of the reasons we’ve seen the new color scheme adopted across operating systems, browsers and social media sites in recent months. If you prefer a lighter or more cheerful color for Chrome, you can still use Google’s themes, although these won’t adapt to your OS settings like the official dark mode. Dark mode for Chrome is currently only supported on macOS, not Windows 10. However, we wouldn’t be surprised if Google brought a built-in dark mode to Windows later this year.How to Use macOS Mojave’s Dark ModeHow to Give Windows 10 a Dark ThemeFinally: Chrome on Windows 10 Is Getting Dark Mode by Taboolaby TaboolaSponsored LinksSponsored LinksPromoted LinksPromoted LinksYou May LikeKelley Blue Book5 Mid-engine Corvettes That Weren’tKelley Blue BookUndoGrepolis – Free Online GameGamers Around the World Have Been Waiting for this GameGrepolis – Free Online GameUndoTODAYPolice Identify Girl Licking Ice Cream Tub In Viral VideoTODAYUndoCNN International for ANAThe Secret Of What It Takes To Be Naomi OsakaCNN International for ANAUndoMy Food and FamilyHealthy, Homemade Drunken Thai Noodles In Just 20 MinutesMy Food and FamilyUndoMayo ClinicManaging psoriatic arthritis painMayo ClinicUndoAdvertisement
Setting up CSF Firewall front end for IPTables by Mike Turcotte-McCusker on March 18, 2017 in Linux – Last Update: March 18, 2017 – 2 commentsFirewalls, commonly underused by home users yet probably one of the most important aspects of securing your machine; ever.Windows users have a HUGE array of options in front of them, but GNU/Linux isn’t quite as flexible in terms of giving you a thousand and one options.Thankfully, there is the powerful IPTables firewall built into most systems. However, IPTables can be a daunting task for people to configure and learn how to use, thankfully there are front ends and other tools that can make setting up a very powerful firewall MUCH easier for the end-user.CSF, or ConfigServer and Firewall, is one such IPTables frontend, and is an absolute powerhouse in itself while still maintaining a much easier setup.MANY Distros come with firewall GUI frontends included in the system, but for the odd one that doesn’t, or if you are setting up a firewall on a text only system such as a VPS, or you just have decided to do away with graphical environments as a whole; this is for you.For this, I am setting up CSF on one of my VPS, through a text only environment via SSH, so it’s absolutely required that you have some basic proficiency and understanding of how to use a terminal environment on your system if you wish to follow the exact steps I will be taking.Note: You could do the vast majority of this if not all of it using a graphical environment, but I personally still would prefer to do it via command-line because I find it much faster to do simple things like extractions, copy pasting, text editing etc via terminal; but the choice is ultimately up to you. Just know that this tutorial is strictly text.The Installation of CSFThe first step is to download the tarball from the CSF website https://configserver.com/cp/csf.htmlThe first thing you’ll want to do is navigate to whatever folder you intend to download CSF to as root.sucd /usr/srcThen download the tarballwget https://download.configserver.com/csf.tgzAnd then we need to extract the tarballtar -xzf csf.tgzMove into the new directorycd csfAnd run the installation scriptsh install.shNext, we need to check if our system has all of the required IPTables modules installed. Some of these may not be installed but so long as the following script does not give a -Fatal Error- then you are good to go.perl /usr/local/csf/bin/csftest.plYou should hopefully get a message like this: “RESULT: csf should function on this server”In the scenario where you get fatal errors, this likely means that IPTables is either not installed, or not started / loaded into the kernel; look up the documentation / forums / search engine results for installing or starting IPTables for your distro of choice.With all that being said, CSF is now installed! However, it’s not actually -DOING- anything yet, so, we need to configure it.To do this, we simply need to edit one file, albeit a long file, it’s fairly well commented and documented, and relatively straight forward if you have any knowledge of networking or how the internet and your system work together. For those of you who have no idea what ports are for example, this may be a bit above your head and I highly recommend checking out some articles on the topic before you delve in deeper.Configuring CSFLet’s get started by opening the CSF configuration file with your favourite text editor, I personally use Nano for things like this.nano /etc/csf/csf.confThe first thing you will see is the following, and it is absolutely essential that you do not play with this setting until we are completely done!################################################################################ SECTION:Initial Settings################################################################################ Testing flag – enables a CRON job that clears iptables incase of# configuration problems when you start csf. This should be enabled until you# are sure that the firewall works – i.e. incase you get locked out of your# server! Then do remember to set it to 0 and restart csf when you’re sure# everything is OK. Stopping csf will remove the line from /etc/crontab## lfd will not start while this is enabledTESTING = “1”Basically keeping this on (1=on 0=off) will ensure you don’t lock yourself out of your system by misconfiguring your firewall. Once you are confident everything is working as it’s supposed to, you can disable this.There are some settings next referring to system logging, I recommend you simply scroll past them as they are set fine for most cases by default, and scroll until you see:# SECTION:IPv4 Port SettingsCSF by default will be aware of all ports currently being used, and will adjust itself accordingly. For example, on this VPS I host a number of services from VoIP servers to gameservers for a few gaming clan clients of mine, and CSF has sorted that out for me.# Allow incoming TCP portsTCP_IN = “10011,20,21,22,25,53,25639,80,110,143,443,465,587,993,995,9987,8080,8181”# Allow outgoing TCP portsTCP_OUT = “25639,10011,20,21,22,25,53,80,110,113,443,587,993,995,8080,8081,9987”# Allow incoming UDP portsUDP_IN = “20,21,25639,10011,53,9987”# Allow outgoing UDP ports# To allow outgoing traceroute add 33434:33523 to this listUDP_OUT = “20,21,53,25639,113,10011,9987,123”As you can see, a number of TCP and UDP ports are already being granted passage through the firewall. You may want to double check any games, servers or services you run for what ports they use, and ensure that these ports are all listed accordingly.If you are unsure of what ports you require open, you can check with the following commands:netstat -vatnnetstat –listennetstat -lntuAnd look for things such astcp 0 0 0.0.0.0:8081 0.0.0.0:* LISTENIn this example, port 8081 is being listened on, so I need port 8081 open.I will add some links at the bottom of this article for more indepth focus on this for those who need it.After you are all set on setting up the IPv4 ports, you will want to make sure Ipv6 is also taken care of if you utilize it on yout system, much in the same fashion.After that, you theoretically could simply start CSF and be good to go, however I highly recommend reading through the rest of the configuration file and changing anything you feel needed; ESPECIALLY if you are setting this up on any kind of server environment. CSF has some pretty awesome anti-DDoS protection options in it. I have used CSF on other servers of mine, and attempted to pwn them pretty hard for testing purposes just to have CSF put me down. That said, it’s definitely not unbeatable, but it’s solid, that’s for sure.Running CSFOnce that is all said and done, we want to test CSF to ensure everything is working properly.To do this, let’s start CSFcsf -eYou should see a bunch of text scroll through your screen, and a message that reads:csf and lfd have been enabled*WARNING* TESTING mode is enabled – do not forget to disable it in the configurationAt this point, the firewall is running. Now is when you try to connect your usual services, run your games, and do whatever it is that you normally do.If at this point you have no issues (which you shouldn’t if you followed the comments in the config file properly!) you can disable testing mode.nano /etc/csf/csf.confTESTING = “1” becomes TESTING = “0”And thencsf -rto restart CSF.You’re done!Anytime you ever need to add ports, you can simply open the CSF config file again, add the port numbers, and then restart csf withcsf -rIf you ever need to stop CSF, usecsf -xYour system is now protected by a firewall!More resources and information can be found at:https://configserver.com/cp/csf.htmlhttps://forum.configserver.com/Now You: Do you use the built-in firewall on your system?SummaryArticle NameSetting up CSF Firewall front end for IPTablesDescriptionThe guide walks you through the steps of setting up and configuring a CSF Firewall front end for IPTables on a machine running Linux.Author Mike TurcottePublisher Ghacks Technology NewsLogo Advertisement
Avast releases machine-code decompiler RetDec by Martin Brinkmann on December 27, 2017 in Misc, Security – Last Update: January 04, 2018 – No commentsComputer security heavyweight Avast released its machine-code decompiler RetDec as an open source tool to the public recently.The company worked on RetDec for seven years, and released the decompiler “to help the cybersecurity community fight malicious software”. The decompiler can be used to analyze a program without running it.Basically, what a decompiler does is take an executable file as input, to source code. It is pretty much the exact opposite of a compiler, a program that turns source code into executable files.Decompilers cannot reconstruct the source code of a program with 100% accuracy usually, and the fact that most malware authors do use obfuscation techniques and other protective measures make it even harder.RetDec supports different architectures and formats, and uses algorithms to improve the accuracy of the resulting code.RetDec addresses the above mentioned issues by using a large set of supported architectures and file formats, as well as in-house heuristics and algorithms to decode and reconstruct applications. RetDec is also the only decompiler of its scale using a proven LLVM infrastructure and provided for free, licensed under MIT.RetDec is freely available to anyone. You can download the source code from GitHub, or a 32-bit or 64-bit executable file for Windows instead. The release is quite big, the archive has a size of more than 250 Megabytes.Avast notes that the decompiler supports Windows 7 and newer and Linux currently, and that Mac OS X is supported unofficially.Setup is unfortunately not as easy as running a program on your machine. The installation instructions list other dependencies that you do need to install on the target machine.On Windows, it is required to install the Microsoft Visual C++Redistributable for Visual Studio 2015 and other programs listed on the Windows Environment Wiki page. This is best done in a virtual machine or on a machine that is dedicated to that task in my opinion.The feature set of RetDec according to Avast:Supported file formats: ELF, PE, Mach-O, COFF, AR (archive), Intel HEX, and raw machine code.Supported architectures (32b only): Intel x86, ARM, MIPS, PIC32, and PowerPC.Static analysis of executable files with detailed information.Compiler and packer detection.Loading and instruction decoding.Signature-based removal of statically linked library code.Extraction and utilization of debugging information (DWARF, PDB).construction of instruction idioms.Detection and reconstruction of C++ class hierarchies (RTTI, vtables).Demangling of symbols from C++ binaries (GCC, MSVC, Borland).Reconstruction of functions, types, and high-level constructs.Integrated disassembler.Output in two high-level languages: C and a Python-like language.Generation of call graphs, control-flow graphs, and various statistics.Avast released a web version of RetDec as well, but had to turn it off as it caused an “extremely high load” on company servers.There is also a plugin for IDA that users of the disassembler may use to run decompilations directly in the software program.Closing WordsRetDec is a specialized tool that most computer users have no use for. The installation procedure is not super straightforward, but explained well enough on the Wiki. It is open source however, and it seems that Avast has mid and long term plans for the decompiler to improve it further. (via Born)Summary12345 Author Rating3 based on 2 votes Software Name RetDecOperating System WindowsSoftware Category SecurityLanding Page https://github.com/avast-tl/retdec Advertisement