Liberia National Police (LNP) Assistant Commissioner for Operations, or the “104” Gregory O. W. Coleman, has left the country on a one-year study leave to pursue graduate studies at the prestigious John F. Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University, United States of America.In his letter the Director of Admissions at the Harvard Kennedy School of Government, Matt Clemons, congratulated Commissioner Coleman for his admission as a member of the Mid –Career Masters in Public Administration Program (MC/MPA). He is also an Edward S Mason Fellow for the class of 2016.“The Admission Committee spent many hours reviewing applications and you should be justifiably proud of this outstanding achievement,” Clemons said while congratulating Commissioner Coleman.Prior to his departure, Commissioner Coleman said he was grateful for the opportunity to study abroad being a police officer, and lauded the LNP Administration and President Ellen Johnson Sirleaf for affording him the opportunity.He said the opportunity was to better prepare him to contribute to Liberia’s growth and development.He added that he was going to Harvard bearing in mind that he is being watched by other Liberians and his success in the program will depend on his approach. He promised to do his best in meeting the standards set by the University.Commissioner Coleman holds a Bachelor of Science (Bsc) degree in Management and a minor in Public Administration from the Cuttington University. He holds a Post graduate Certificate in Public Administration from the Ghana Institute of Public Administration (GIMPA) with several professional papers in policing.The MC/MPA is an intensive course of study for experienced professionals who must complete required summer programming followed by two terms of full time academic coursework.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Omega Insurance Group Board Chair, Cllr. Cyril Jones, performs the leadership transition, where former CEO Charles Ananaba (right) turns over the gavel of authority to his son, Gajay (left), the new MD and CEOThere is an adage that says train up a child in a way that when he or she grows up they will not depart from it. This was vividly seen over the weekend when Gajay Ananaba was appointed by his parents as the new Managing Director and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) of Omega Insurance Company, rebranded as Omega Insurance Group Limited.Gajay Ananaba takes over from his parents, Mr. Charles L. Ananaba, former Managing Director and CEO, and Patricia R. Ananaba, former Vice President for Administration and Human Resource, who retired last Saturday, November 24, 2018.Prior to taking the helm at Omega, Gajay served for over 10 years, up to his last role as Chief Operations Officer. He was instrumental in running the day-to-day affairs of the Company and in his role; he was responsible to complete the Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter program.Taking the helm, Mr. Ananaba thanked his parents from the bottom of his heart for being the best parents that any child could pray for.He said, “It will be my endeavor to sustain the efforts of my parents and ensure an even brighter future for Omega with knowledge, customer-centricity, and technology as the core mantra. As I embark on this journey, I hope to sustain the brand’s rich legacy and further strengthen it to a higher height. “As we move forward with the transition of leadership and the rebranding of Omega Insurance Company to Omega Insurance Group Limited, our loyal and valuable insureds; and the general public can rest assured that Omega’s vision, mission, and core values remain the same.”Gajay is a graduate from the Louisiana State University A&M in 2008 with a Bachelors of Science in Finance and Concentration in Risk Management and Insurance. In 2015, he earned the designation of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriter (CPCU) from the American Insurance Institute of Chartered Property and Casualty Underwriters, making him the first and still the only Liberian to have obtained the most widely respected designation in the Property & Casualty Insurance industry in Liberia.Acknowledging his esteemed customers, Ananaba promised that Omega will continue to provide quality and affordable financial services to the private sector at a fair price.He added, “As an Insurance Group, we will continuously strive to be the leader in the non-banking financial sector through professionalism, perseverance, trustworthiness, and customer focus — our core values.”Concluding, the young CEO Ananaba said, “we diversify our book of business, and operate multiple profit centers; we are cognizant of the many challenges we will be faced with in this economy; and will rely heavily on our risk management expertise that has been the backbone of our operations.”Mr. Ananaba’s predecessor, Charles L. Ananaba, said, “I’ve had a long happy and rewarding tenure of 11 years relying solely on one of the two profit centers of an insurance company, specifically Underwriting. Even though we have become one of the premier insurance institutions in the country, we must also be honest with ourselves and understand that maintaining a profitable book of business requires diversification.”He told his business partners at the rebranding ceremony that as they operate as an insurance group with multiple profit centers that will ascertain “our future obligations to policyholders are met timely and in good-faith.“As humans, we must accept change. The late Steve Jobs once said “you can’t connect the dots looking forward; you can connect them looking backward. So you have to trust that the dots will somewhere connect in your future. So today, I am here to, tell you that I have been able to connect the dots in the past and I can assure you that they will connect in the future,” he said.The former Omega Insurance Group MD said, “As I retire today, I truly believe that those dots have connected to enable me to trust that Omega is in great hands. We have mentored our son, Gajay L. Ananaba over the past 31 years, to become a better CEO than me. We have bestowed upon him the necessary tools to spearhead Omega to greater heights.”He promised all his insureds that they should not worry, because they are leaving the business in great hands.Mr. Ananaba lauded his many staff for bringing new inspiration and joy to his life and said he and his wife started Omega Insurance because of the inspiration they received from being the only Loss Adjusting firm in Liberia, adding that, “We saw the need for quality service and technical underwriting. We understood what it meant to create an insurance company that could lead the industry by example.”Meanwhile, the event was attended by Omega customers, International guest, Family and Friends, as well as members of the Lebanese and Indian business communities.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)
Firefighters from the Guyana Fire Service (GFS) last Sunday were exposed to more specialised training on fire prevention and containment. The exercise conducted at the Leonora Fire Station is aimed at building the capacity of the GFS.The training was carried out by the United Kingdom, Fire Risk ManagementChief Fire Officer, Marlon Gentleconsultancy experts of Quantum Fire Solutions. Consultant Mike Evers acknowledged that there is much know-how in the Guyana Fire Service already.However, he noted that they “have come from England to work with them and alongside them and exchange techniques of firefighting in smoke control and also high-temperature scenarios”.Chief Fire Officer, Marlon Gentle expressed satisfaction with the performance of the local firefighters during the training exercise. He noted that the training also provided the GFS with the opportunity to test simulators, ensure they were functional and could be used for the purposes they were intended. In 2017, the simulator was certified as having met international standards by Angloco Limited UK, an international company.
The session will provide an overview on council’s roles and responsibilities, including expected commitment of time, how much one may be expected to get paid and an opportunity to ask staff any other questions that may come to mind.‘Candidate 101’ is being help on Tuesday September 30 at 7:00 p.m. in City Hall Chambers.Nominations begin on September 30 at 9:00 a.m. and run until October 10 at 4:00 p.m.- Advertisement -For additional information regarding the upcoming elections, contact Chief Election Officer Janet Prestley or Deputy Chief Election Officer Laura Howes at 250 787 8150.
0Shares0000‘Prepared for criticism’: China’s head coach Marcello Lippi © AFP / STRSHANGHAI, China, Sep 11 – China is throwing money at President Xi Jinping’s ambitions to boast a top-class national football team and one day host a World Cup.But while the latter can be achieved by splashing the cash, the former appears further away than ever after a desperate four days. China’s national team have long been an embarrassment to the country and on Friday, Marcello Lippi’s side lost 1-0 to Qatar in Doha, triggering another bout of soul-searching and finger-pointing by Chinese media and fans.Titan Sports, citing “informed sources”, said that an apoplectic “high-ranking official” got on the phone to a team supervisor at the Khalifa Stadium before half-time to demand what was going on.Lippi, said to be the best-paid international coach in the world on reported wages of between $23 million and $27 million a year, admitted he was shocked by the team’s performance in Qatar.That was followed on Monday by a moribund 0-0 draw with Bahrain, who are ranked 113th in the FIFA rankings to China’s 75th, prompting Lippi to say that he was “mentally prepared for criticism”.Some incandescent fans on Weibo, China’s equivalent of Twitter, called for the national team to be disbanded.The 70-year-old Lippi, who is expected to step down after the Asian Cup in the UAE in January, said he had been “surprised and worried about the condition of our players” before the Qatar game.“If the Asian Cup opened next week, I’d be worried, but we still have time to become better,” added Lippi, who led his native Italy to win the World Cup in 2006.– Big money, little return –China improved when Lippi took over nearly two years ago, but that initial bounce is gone. In his 21 games in charge they have won eight, lost eight and drawn five.They failed to reach the World Cup in Russia — in Lippi’s defence, most of the damage to China’s qualifying hopes was done before he arrived — and he is under pressure for the first time.Lippi’s side had plenty of the ball against World Cup 2022 hosts Qatar but lacked a cutting edge up front, where Chinese Super League (CSL) top-scorer Wu Lei had little support or service.Lippi has previously bemoaned his lack of strikers, saying it was because CSL teams tended to favour expensive foreign forwards, limiting chances for Chinese players.On Monday, the Chinese Football Association announced that another well-known coach, the 71-year-old Guus Hiddink, will take over the under-21 side — another statement of intent.The Dutchman will earn just under four million euros a year after tax, local media said, which is more than England manager Gareth Southgate.With Lippi and now Hiddink, China boast two top coaches, albeit ones that are nearing the ends of their careers.– ‘Chronic illness’ –But there is widespread acknowledgement that China do not have the players to compete even with Asia’s best.The average age of Lippi’s starting line-up against Qatar was 30, underlining the dearth of young talent.“Speaking with no exaggeration, Lippi’s national team is truly standing at a crossroads,” journalist Bai Guohua wrote in the Soccer News newspaper.Bai said that the inclusion of the 38-year-old midfielder Zheng Zhi “reflects the frustrating reality of Chinese football -– if the younger players could take over quickly, don’t you think Lippi would be willing to bring in more youngsters?”As part of president Xi’s football drive, youth academies and pitches are springing up in China, but it is expected to take several years before they begin to bear fruit.China have only reached the World Cup finals once, in 2002, when they failed to win a point or score a goal.Bai lamented that “it feels like we are far from one step away from the World Cup”.“This is not a unique problem for Lippi’s national team, but a chronic illness of the Chinese football team.”0Shares0000(Visited 3 times, 1 visits today)
SBC Chief Executive Edward Whitacre recently drew criticism by suggesting his company – which is investing billions of dollars to upgrade its phone network for TV and advanced multimedia services – has the right to charge Web-based providers of rival services to deliver their products to customers over SBC’s lines. Before the deal closes, AT&T will be paying a special dividend of $1.30 per share to its 2.3 million stockholders under the terms of the agreement with SBC. San Antonio-based SBC is one of the regional “Baby Bells” created by the 1984 breakup of AT&T’s national monopoly on local and long-distance phone service. AT&T brings a national fiber-optic network and a valuable base of corporate accounts to SBC’s largely regional, consumer-oriented business. AT&T also gives SBC the international capabilities needed to serve companies with far-flung operations. After the deals, SBC and Verizon would rank as either the first or second largest U.S. providers of local, long-distance, wireless and high-speed Internet services. The company owns a majority stake in Cingular Wireless in partnership with BellSouth Corp. 160Want local news?Sign up for the Localist and stay informed Something went wrong. Please try again.subscribeCongratulations! You’re all set! AD Quality Auto 360p 720p 1080p Top articles1/5READ MOREBlues bury Kings early with four first-period goals The California commission’s votes came nearly 10 months after AT&T agreed to be acquired by its former subsidiary and follows approvals by two federal agencies, 36 other states and 14 other countries. SBC originally predicted the entire regulatory process might take almost a year and a half. “We worked (the regulatory review) real hard, and we’ve got some agencies who understand the world has changed,” SBC Chief Executive Edward Whitacre said in an interview, referring to the long-standing mentality that there’s little competition because too few companies control the nation’s phone lines. Still, while the swift merger approvals show that regulators see the competition from new technologies and rivals, many have insisted on concessions from SBC and Verizon to bolster certain market segments. On Friday, the California commission extracted conditions similar to those imposed on the companies by the U.S. Department of Justice and the Federal Communications Commission. For example, SBC and Verizon have agreed to stop requiring customers who want high-speed DSL Internet access to buy local phone service as well. The FCC also required them to freeze for 30 months the wholesale prices they charge competitors to lease certain high-capacity business lines. The companies also have promised not to hinder Internet access to consumers or the free flow of Internet traffic on their networks – a topic that Congress is debating as part of a new bill governing the telecommunications industry. NEW YORK – SBC Communications Inc. completed its purchase of former parent AT&T Corp. on Friday after California officials removed the final regulatory hurdle for the $16 billion deal. The California Public Utility Commission also gave consent to Verizon Communications Inc.’s planned purchase of MCI Inc. for about $7.5 billion, though that deal is still awaiting approval in other states. The two deals highlight the fading distinction between local and long-distance calling as separate services, while ushering in a new era dominated by direct competition with cable TV and wireless providers rather than among individual phone companies. SBC, which already had said it was changing its name to AT&T, announced Friday it also would be assuming AT&T’s longtime stock trading symbol, “T,” starting Dec. 1. The company also said it will unveil a new corporate logo on Monday.
QPR manager Mark Hughes knows who he would like to be the club’s new captain and plans to make an announcement after the squad’s pre-season visit to Germany.[poll id=”30″]See also: QPR boss close to deciding new captainFollow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebook
Two teams have succeeded in building little robots that work on DNA tracks. These resemble in many respects the machines that cells use to perform its functions on DNA. No one denies that humans engineered their nanobots on purpose, but Darwinist scientists claim natural cellular machines evolved without purpose or design. What’s the difference? Nature reported on work by two teams that built such DNA robots. Lloyd Smith commented on these in the same issue as a kind of science fiction come true.1 He made it clear that these are information-rich systems:There are several interesting concepts lurking in these papers. Lund et al. point out that macroscopic robots generally have to store a fair amount of information to provide “internal representations of their goals and environment and to coordinate sensing and any actuating of [their] components”. Molecular robots, however, have limited ability to store such complex information. In both devices, the motion of the walkers is thus programmed into the DNA surface, rather than into the walkers themselves. Similarly, by setting the cargo-donating machines into predetermined loading or non-loading states, Gu et al. also use information stored in the walker’s environment to control the outcome of their system…. Although both papers integrate DNA walkers with origami landscapes, they differ in one important respect. Lund and colleagues’ device is autonomous – no external intervention is required for it to execute the program built into the system. By contrast, Gu and colleagues’ device relies heavily on external interventions, most importantly the addition of new DNA strands to drive the movements of the walkers and the operation of the cargo-carrying DNA machines. The reward for this lack of autonomy is greater complexity of behaviour: whereas Lund and colleagues’ robot is currently limited to walks along a path, Gu and colleagues’ robot can pick up cargo while walking, and can adopt eight states that correspond to different manufacturing possibilities. Future work will seek to maintain autonomy while ramping up the attainable complexity of behaviour programmed into molecular systems. Although we remain far away from the possibilities imagined for nanotechnology by science fiction, it is inspiring nonetheless to see such creativity and rapid progress in the development of autonomous molecular systems that can execute complex actions. This is undoubtedly a field to watch.1. Lloyd M. Smith, “Nanotechnology: Molecular robots on the move,” Nature 465, 167�168, 13 May 2010, doi:10.1038/465167a.So if we do it, it’s intelligent design, but if nature does it, it’s blind evolution? You realize, of course, that the natural machines in cells are far ahead of us: they are not only autonomous, but attain very complex behaviors that are programmed into their molecular systems. Not only that, they belong to complexes of molecular machines, which belong to networks of signal processing systems, that boggle the mind – and they belong to entire systems that have a coded library, and can reproduce all their parts! Why should not scientists find it “inspiring to see such creativity” of “autonomous molecular systems that can execute complex actions” and ascribe it to design? Molecular biology should be filled with God-fearing, worshiping, praise-singing scientists shouting Hallelujah! What we get instead are man-fearing, fault-finding, hate-mongering ingrates shouting Pal-Ayala (next entry).(Visited 8 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0
Brand South Africa’s CEO, Dr Kingsley Makhubela and his executive team briefed Parliament’s Portfolio Committee on Communications yesterday about the performance of the organisation in 2016/17.Communications Minister Ayanda Dlodlo and Brand South Africa CEO Dr Kingsley Makhubela at Brand South Africa’s Nation Brand Forum, held in Johannesburg on 5 October 2017. (Image: SA Government Flickr)Dr Makhubela and his team were once again applauded by the Committee for achieving the organisation’s second consecutive clean audit since its establishment in 2002.Commenting on this achievement, Dr Makhubela said: “This success comes as a result of the commitment and dedication of the collaborative efforts between government, business, civil society and the broaderSouth African public. In reality, Brand South Africa belongs to all citizens of South Africa, they are the true custodians of the Nation Brand, and Brand South Africa’s role is to Coordinate, Articulate, Enable and Inspire, creating a voluntary franchise.”Brand South Africa is mandated to deliver proactive and reactive reputation management, communication and marketing strategies to position the Nation Brand positively. The key deliverable of Brand South Africa is to consistently and coherently position South Africa as a competitive and positive Nation Brand by working with a range of stakeholders.In the year under review and under the leadership of Minister of Communications Ayanda Dlodlo, Brand South Africa has “enhanced its understanding of international investor perceptions of South Africa as a country in which to do business; while also developing and implementing initiatives aimed at promoting Constitutional values and active citizenship among South Africans; through enhancing and strengthening engagements between the public and private sector,” said Dr Makhubela.Through Brand South Africa’s Research Department, the organisation is able to track a wide variety of competitiveness, reputation, and related global studies and indices. The goal is to monitor and evaluate overall country performance in a highly competitive and uncertain global economy.Dr Makhubela said that such empirical evidence about the nation brand’s performance and country reputation, enables Brand South Africa to develop comprehensive and targeted marketing and communication strategies to position South Africa positively in international markets.“In the year ahead, Brand South Africa will create a conducive environment for engagements with stakeholders in government, business and civil society. These insights assist to profile, address the challenges and provide creative input on how the organisation can best bring the Nation Brand to life. They are critical to the strategy development and programme execution of the organisation”“Most importantly, active citizenship remains a priority with the view of ensuring citizens contribute to alleviating socio-economic challenges of our country. Building nation brands, including brand South Africa, is a long journey which requires a consistent and coordinated effort. We therefor call on all South Africans to continue playing their part in building our Nation,” concluded Dr Makhubela.Would you like to use this article in your publication or on your website? See Using Brand South Africa material.
There are drawbacks with some of these options, including higher costs and, in some cases, awkward aesthetics. But Erik would probably choose the second option as the least objectionable. Or should he be worrying about this at all?That’s the topic for this Q&A Spotlight. Our expert’s opinionGBA Technical Director Peter Yost had these thoughts:I believe it is just as important to have dedicated directional drying potential in roofs as it is in walls. (For more information on this point, see this article.) In fact, given the increased moisture and higher risk of leaks that roofs see, it’s probably more important in roofs than it is in walls.Vapor permeance of standing-seam metal roofing: When this roof cladding is installed directly against the roofing underlayment, there is little to no air movement to create “in situ” vapor permeability to the assembly. The doubled-over laps and, in many cases, sealant used in the seams mean at least a Class II vapor retarder rating for the roof cladding if not Class I. It’s a different story if the metal roof cladding is in a different configuration — corrugated roofing, for example.(Note on permeance versus permeability: Permeance is a metric of vapor movement of a given thickness; permeability is per unit, such as per inch.)Vapor-permeable roofing underlayments: If you create a ventilation space between the standing-seam metal roof cladding — using technique and spacing acceptable to the roof cladding manufacturer — there are plenty of options for vapor-permeable roofing underlayment to provide exterior drying potential for the roof sheathing. They include GAF Deck Armor, Cosella-Dorken Delta-Vent S, and VaproShield SlopeShield.Spacer mesh under standing-seam roof cladding: I checked in with Brian Knowles at a local high-performance roofing company, Jancewicz & Son. “I wouldn’t do it,” he said. “We use the 1/2-inch foam backer rod and it creates a small air space between the vapor permeable roof paper and the steel. You need a flat surface to avoid oil canning on the finish panels.”The use of backer rod run vertically in the middle of the metal panel — to prevent oil canning and create soffit-to-ridge air movement — appears to be pretty common in the roofing industry (I did a Google search on “using backer rod under standing-seam metal roof” and got plenty of roofing contractors commenting on the technique). But I could find no information on just what drying benefit there is to this practice. It certainly prevents oil canning but a 1/2-inch gap would provide pretty limited air flow potential between the cladding and the roofing underlayment.The building code and unvented roof assemblies: In my opinion, the current code is making a big mistake by implicitly “equating” the thermal and moisture performance of exterior rigid insulation and closed cell spray foam up against the roof sheathing (Section R806.5 – Unvented attic and unvented enclosed rafter assemblies). With a vapor-impermeable roof cladding/roofing underlayment, the former can be configured for significant drying potential to the interior and the latter has no significant drying potential in either direction.I am currently working on an article on the topic of moisture performance of unvented roof assemblies for The Journal of Light Construction. It should be out in the April or, more likely, the May issue. Stay tuned. How to Build an Insulated Cathedral CeilingHow to Install Rigid Foam on Top of Roof SheathingGreen Basics: Roofing Material ChoicesOpen-Cell Spray Foam and Damp Roof SheathingGreen Basics: Spray Foam InsulationMartin’s Ten Rules of Roof Design From Building Science Corp.: Mea Culpa Roofs RELATED ARTICLES GBA reader Erik is building a new house in southwestern Washington state, and he’s thought through most of the details with care. But as the time nears to install the standing-seam metal roof, Erik realizes he may have overlooked something important in the construction details.As he envisions it, the unvented roof would be insulated with the “flash and batt” approach — a 3-inch layer of closed-cell spray foam applied to the underside of the roof sheathing followed by insulation batts to fill the remainder of the 2×12 rafter bays. Above the 5/8-inch roof deck, Erik sees synthetic underlayment and then the metal roof.“Now, as we get close to putting the roof on, with quotes from roofers in hand and a few selected based on their experience with standing-seam, I realize that one thing I did not fully understand is ensuring the sheeting can dry in at least one direction,” Erik writes in a Q&A post.Erik sees four options for venting the roof:1. Adding a layer of rigid foam above the sheathing, which would require a second layer of plywood over the foam to provide a solid substrate for the roofing.2. Adding a vent channel under the metal roofing and using a vapor permeable underlayment, which also would require a second layer of sheathing.3. Use of a mesh layer such as Cedar Breather between the underlayment and the roofing.4. Use of a vapor permeable underlayment or 30-pound felt over the sheathing, followed by the roofing. Metal roofing will let moisture escapeJon R sees some merit in using Cedar Breather, which is sold as a “ventilated underlayment.”“With perhaps .7 perms and good air sealing below it, the sheathing sees some but not much wetting,” Jon writes. “In my opinion, a [Cedar Breather] vent channel plus breathable underlayment would work very well to remove this amount of moisture.”Erik worries that metal roofing is an impermeable, moisture-trapping material. Jon, however, points out that while metal can’t breathe, the seams between sections of roofing can.“So you don’t have to move moisture very far,” he says. “A guess is that even a crinkle wrap breathable roof underlayment would suffice — but [I have] no idea if one exists.”Dana Dorsett also sees some drying potential with that type of roofing, particularly when it’s attached to purlins that have been installed over the structural roof deck. “With proper underlayments there is still some outward drying,” Dorsett says, “but in often-rainy, sometimes windy Skamania County [where Erik is building his house] purlins would be a safer bet.”Michael Maines isn’t quite as optimistic about the ability of a metal roof to release moisture.“I don’t think much drying is happening through the seams on a metal roof,” Maines says. “Maybe on a conventional screw-down rib/panel, agricultural-style roofing, but certainly not on double-lock standing seam, and unlikely on the snap-lock standing seam [Erik] noted. (Jon R., I’m really not out to get you —this is a topic I discuss often with clients and builders.)“One note to add to Martin’s advice,” he says, “if you install metal roofing with any air space below, be sure to install a waterproof roofing underlayment, because you have created a condensation machine. Many roofing underlayments are water-resistant but not waterproof.” The Cedar Breather optionErik sees the use of Cedar Breather over the sheathing as a promising option. But, he wonders, would that detail create the “condensation machine” that Maines has warned him about.“So, if I went the Cedar Breather route would I want to use non-breathable underlayment or breathable?” he asks. “And would I be inviting more problems by putting all that condensation on the underlayment instead of the roof surface?”Maines doubts many installers would look forward to installing metal roofing over the Cedar Breather, a 1/4-inch-thick mesh designed by its manufacturer, Benjamin Obdyke, for use under shingles or shakes.“It makes a good capillary break,” Maines says. “But it is flexible and will result in oil canning, the bane of metal roof installations. And it’s not thick enough for significant air flow. That’s good, because air flow (on cold nights following sunny days) is when the bottom of skip-sheathed metal roofs produce condensation. But it also means that you won’t get significant drying. At least that’s my semi-educated opinion on the matter. (I’ve only used Cedar Breather and similar products under cedar shingles; even clapboards and solid board sheathing is difficult to install well over it.)”Malcolm Taylor has the same concerns about installing metal roofing over a flexible substrate like Cedar Breather: “All the flashing and penetrations in the roof rely on gasketed fasteners, which in turn rely on everything staying tight, with no flexibility between the panels and what is underneath,” he says.In the end, Maines says, if Erik wants a more resilient assembly, he’ll need to vent the roof either above or below the sheathing. Furring the entire roof with 2x material and then installing a second layer of sheathing is an added cost, just as installing baffles below the sheathing before spraying the closed-cell foam would be. “But if you want a vented roof, those are your options,” he says, “unless something else changes.”Jon R, however, believes the 1/4-inch vent channel created by the Cedar Breather would be enough.“I suggest that compared to the amount of wetting from below in Erik’s roof, moisture movement via a 1/4-inch vent gap is very significant, not negligible, and more resilient than no gap,” he says. “Larger would be wasted expense. On a roof designed to unvented specs, 1/4 inch *is* code compliant.“There is a question of outside airflow under metal roofing being a net plus or minus,” he continues, “but that’s true at 1/4 inch or 2 inches and arguably true with no intentional gap. A little bit of moist outside air gets under metal roofing even with no gap (and the moisture it sometimes deposits has a harder time getting out). I find it unlikely that for moisture in Erik’s design, a 0-inch vent is fine, 1+ inch is fine and somehow 1/4 inch is a negative.” Just make sure the roof deck is dryGBA Editor Martin Holladay suggests Erik’s original roof plan may not be problematic after all — providing the roof sheathing is dry when the spray foam is installed. In fact, most flash-and-batt roofs do not have a built-in path for the roof sheathing to dry, which is also the case when the roof is insulated completely with closed-cell foam.“Here’s the idea,” Holladay says. “You make sure that the roof sheathing is dry on the day that the spray foam contractor installs the spray foam, and then you don’t worry.“As long as the roof sheathing starts out dry, it shouldn’t take on any new moisture until you get a roof leak,” Holladay continues “If you’ve got a roof leak, you’ve got wet sheathing — but that’s the case with any roof. In that case, you repair the roof leak or install new roofing (and you make sheathing repairs if necessary).”If guaranteeing a drying mechanism is important, he adds, Erik has two options. The first is to choose a different kind of roofing that’s vapor permeable, such as concrete tiles. The second is to install a ventilation channel above the sheathing along with a second layer of plywood, an option Erik has already covered.“Most people wouldn’t do this,” Holladay says, “but it’s your house and you get to spend your money how you want.”Another possible approach, suggested by John Clark, is to install the metal roofing over 2×4 purlins, skipping the second layer of plywood altogether. Some but not all manufacturers of metal roofing would allow this, Holladay replies, and Erik would need to find out whether solid decking is required under the particular kind of roofing he’s planning on using if he’s interested in pursuing this option. Don’t overthink the problemAfter mulling the suggestions GBA readers have made, Erik is still left with a question or two. If he installs the roofing over the sheathing without an air gap, for example, should the underlayment be vapor permeable?“You are overthinking this question,” Holladay replies. “There won’t be any outward drying if you install a standing-seam metal roof above your underlayment with no air gap, so the vapor-permeance of your roofing underalyment is irrelevant. Use whatever you want.”Holladay also weighs in on the Cedar Breather option, telling Erik it’s not a standard approach for standing-seam roofing and should be cleared with the roofing manufacturer.“If I had to speculate, I’d say that real ventilation drying through the Cedar Breather is unlikely, because (a) the gap is too small to allow for significant air flow, and (b) it’s not clear to me what type of soffit vent or ridge vent you’d use with this approach,” Holladay says. “The lack of air flow means that condensation in the springtime (when warm weather follows snowfall) is less likely than it would be with a metal roof that has a more generous ventilation channel.”